Archive for November, 2011


Pure Food Law Working in Fort Dodge

   Posted by: admin    in Food, Merchants

The Fort Dodge Messenger: Nov. 13, 1906

Pure Food Law Working in Fort Dodge

Good Labeled New Way Are Already on the Shelves of Fort Dodge Grocers

The pure food law is already working in Fort Dodge. A visit to a half dozen grocery stores will plainly show this. The goods labelled so as to show plainly just what ingredients are contained are coming in daily and are slowly taking the places on the shelves of the old style ones where adulteration was not shown.

The grocers are allowed until July 1st, 1906, to dispose of whatever unbranded foods they have on their shelves and all are now working them off as fast as possible and buying the new kinds. It has been supposed by many that when the pure food  law went into rigid enforcement there would be no adulterated stuff on the market. This idea is erroneous. The same kinds of goods will be for sale, but they will be plainly labeled so that the buyer will know just what they are composed of. There will be just as much adulterated stuff on the market but the purchaser will not be forced to suppose that it is pure. For instance, where the Fort Dodge housewife has gone down to the grocery store and bought pepper put up in a neat box and marked “pure pepper,” and taken it home in contentment, now she will buy the same kind but the box will be marked “Pepper mixed with cornmeal, colored.”

A Messenger reporter made the rounds of a few grocery stores this morning. The same story was told in all. Yes, the pure food law is already commencing to work here. It is not in full blast but we are getting the new labelled goods on hand in place of the old as fast as possible. All of the jobbers are sending us the goods marked so that what they are composed of is plainly seen.

“See here,” said one man, white aproned and with pencil behind ear and order book in hand as he whisked around back of some shelving. “This the brand of sorghum that used to be marked in bold letters ‘Pure sorghum.’ The manufacturers of it have stepped down off their high horse a bit for now you will notice is it marked just plain ‘Sorghum,’ and in this little red lettered notice down here it says, 90 per cent sorghum, 10 per cent grape sugar. Here is a flaring adulteration in the line of catsup and I don’t think we will handle this brand much longer. It used to be marked ‘Pure Tomato Catsup.’ Now there is a big formula and this is the way it reads: ‘This catsup is made of tomatoes, sugar, salt, cloves, allspice, cayenne pepper, onions and one tenth of one per cent of benzoate of soda.’ Another catsup admits on the label that it is made of turnips artificially colored together with the usual spices and still another claims to be absolutely pure except for a small portion of benzoate of soda to prevent fermenting. In the maple sugar line there have been some big changes and we only have one brand in the store that is marked pure. All the others have explanations showing how the stuff is adulterated. Now here is a can that used to be marked, ‘Pure Maple Syrup.’ They don’t even dare to claim that it is maple syrup now and the label says ‘Old fashioned syrup, made from cane and maple sugars,’ and that’s just the way it goes all through. The cans that used to be marked ‘pure leaf lard,’ now admit that their contents are only about half lard., tea, coffee, preserves, spices, etc. All are shown up before the people and the results are, in many cases, surprising. The result will be that a lot of these brands that are the worst adulterated will soon go off the market and the manufacturers will quit making them. Foods that are adulterated in a small way will probably continue to sell just as well as before.”

Whatever else it may do, the enforcement of the pure food law will necessitate a liberal expenditure of lithographers’ and printers’ ink in labeling new packages put out by the manufacturers. Where goods are shipped the length and breadth of the country, they come under federal jurisdiction, and the complexion of the billboards and other display spaces advertising them will undergo a decided change. The redecoration may even extend to the delivery carts, for the reason that designs used on the labels become in time such a trade mark as to be repeated in fac simile where ever the company’s “ad” is displayed. The label must give us the true contents of the package, the name of the manufacturer and the true name of the place of manufacture.

Many of the familiar signs and figures which greet the eye in public places will disappear. But the pure food law is not to abolish display advertising. New types, new designs, new colors will take the place of old favorites. The rush for publicity will be greater than ever. Those manufacturers whose products were up to requirements will give due prominence to the fact and the less fortunate, once their shortcomings are remedied, will be equally zealous in proclaiming the purity of their goods.

Food products will no longer be sold for what they are not. The regulations provide that no picture design or device which gives any false indications of origin or quality shall be used upon any label. For example, the picture of a pig will not ‘go’ and a label if placed upon packages containing beef products and the likeness of a chicken is equally obnoxious to the government if place upon cans containing veal or pork. Geographical names may be used only with the words “cut,” “brand,” “type,” or “style,” as the case may be, except upon foods manufactured in the place, state, territory or county named. For instance, ham not produced in New York is not “New York ham” and may only be labeled “New York style.” Bologna sausage does not necessarily come from abroad and hereafter it must be labeled “Bologna style sausage.” Whisky is not whisky unless it is the straight undiluted article and Boston Baked beans as now advertised need not necessarily have ever been in Boston. Indeed, most of them are never baked but are cooked or boiled. Cod, if the experts are to be believed, is not cod at all, it might be hake, haddock or cusk.

Creamless Ice Cream.

Ice cream is not longer a strictly dairy product. It is now rather a kitchen dish and classified with puddings. Of course there are all kinds of ice cream but the truly commercial product contains very little cream at all, and is made largely of corn starch, gelatine and flavoring extracts. As such it is lacking by several per cent in the fats required by the government. Patent medicines are classified under “pure foods” so far as those that contain either alcohol, opium or cocaine, unless the same is indicated on the label, in long primer *aps (first letter unreadable, I couldn’t guess what is should be) are not meeting the requirements. No matter how much artists and architects imitate the old masters any medicine manufacturer who attempts to imitate the master work of some nostrum concoctor is perpetuating a fraud. The manufacturer must be perfectly frank, make his ingredients public and reveal trade secrets, if necessary.

It has been proved beyond question that adulterations exist; also, that they are frauds on the pocketbook rather than on the public health. Force by competition, the manufacturer has cheapened the foods while not making them injurious. To do this he sought the chemist’s aid, and he is not dependent upon the chemist to get the goods back to government specifications.

No matter how good the intentions of the manufacturer, his product is always liable to some changes of which he knows nothing. Be they small or great they are serious, and under the law become adulterations. To prevent them he is dependent on the chemist. By periodical tests and examinations the chemist keeps the manufacturer informed as to the standard of his goods and holds him to the legal requirements. These variations in quality may be occasioned by flaws in the raw material. Foreign substances may enter into the composition. Carelessness on the part of an employer may allow grave discrepancies in the recipe. The chemist, therefore, is the only check the manufacturer has to protect himself and the consumer.

Just what the requirements will finally be in many of the foods is not yet known. The commission has been holding a last hearing this week, and from factories, laboratories and law offices experts have been  hurrying to Washington to get in a word for some particular classification.

There is a long list of the most common adulterated foods in the custody of the government experts, and strange as it may seem, many of these artificial products are deemed just as good for public consumption as the real article. Under the strict interpretation of the law, however, they are violations and such must be rectified.

A Few Adulterations.

The government standard for lard is rendered fat from slaughtered, healthy hogs and leaf lard is that particular fat taken from the inner lining of the abdomen. Both have to pass certain tests for fats and acids and – unnecessary to say – one may now buy lard put up in pails that was never near a hog. Milk and its products are very easily adulterated, and despite the municipal inspection now being made all over the country this article of common consumption is the most tampered with, and sold for below standard. Maple syrup, the highly-prized product, from the sap of the tree, is very scarce and dear some years. Manufacturers get around this, however, by grinding raw sugar cane and flavoring the extract with hickory bark. Maple syrup is adulterated by the use of glucose syrup, as is molasses.

Even honey is not beyond duplication. It is said that a preparation has been made and sold for  honey that never had any bee medication in it, the comb being made of paraffine (sic) and the cells filled with a fluid substance made from glucose. This statement, however, has been challenged by the bee industry and branded as a lie. But the government chemists claim that they have proof of their assertion.

Ground spice has been offered for sale which was little more than a mixture of ground nutshells and flour with lamp black for coloring matter. Of course, some spice entered into this composition to give taste, but very little. Such has been the advancement in synthetic products that many flavoring extracts are artificially made. Cottonseed and sesame oils make a clever substitution for olive oil, although they are not called by that name. They are known as salad oils and although the trade knows the difference the average consumer does not and buys that article for true oil.

Tea and Coffee Adulterated.

There has been a strict government regulation on tea, but this stimulant has been religiously adulterated for years with leaves of other plants and spent tea leaves. To increase bulk coffee is adulterated with chickory (sic). Not very long ago some ingenious imitator got out an artificial bean made with a mixture of cereals, sweepings, flavoring material and clay. The bean was a perfect counterfeit so far as looks went and was strong enough to stand a  hot roasting. chocolate is adulterated with flour, some manufacturers declaring that flour is absolutely essential to making chocolate palatable, just the same as it is to complete chicken a la fricasee.

Wines are adulterated and fortified by adding spirits. A preservative is also used and some whine has no fruit juice in it at all, being a mixture of spirits, flavoring extracts, and alcohol. Vinegar is another product commonly adulterated. A mineral acid is used for this, also an acetic acid, distilled from wool and some vinegar is stretched by use of water. In some parts of the country, a glucose solution is sold for cider or wine vinegar.

Makers of recognized pure food products have little to fear either from the new regulations or the publicity attracted by the recent agitation and the framing of the new law. The great majority of manufacturers in fact, pay little attention to the act on this score. What annoys them most is that in many cases they must print their recipes on the labels and reveal trade secrets to their competitors.

An Uncalled for Objection.

The protest made by some of the manufacturers of candy against the provision of the pure food laws which forbids the employment of aniline dyes in the making of sweets, seems to be uncalled for, though it is claimed that the sale of candy will be seriously affected if it is enforced. We do not think that the absence of bright colors will prevent children from buying confectionery, but at any rate they should not be poisoned in partaking of sweetmeats.

The love of the little ones for the taste of candy is greater than their admiration of rainbow hues, and in a little while they would get used to the new order of things, and buy as readily as they did before legislative means were taken to protect them from unhealthful productions.

It is true that colored confectionery is attractive to the eye. So is paint anywhere when it is tastefully applied, but that is no reason why we should eat it. The confectioners can save money by not using aniline dyes, and thus be able to save money which they can devote to the making of better and more wholesome sweets.


Receives 1,100 Volts and Lives

   Posted by: admin    in Accident

The Fort Dodge Messenger: Nov. 12, 1903

Receives 1,100 Volts and Lives

Peter Carney Experiences an Electric Shock Sufficient to Kill Ordinary Man.

Is Able to Work Today

Accidentally Leans Against Switchboard and Falls to Floor Unconscious.

Receiving thru his body an electrical shock of 1,100 volts at 5 o’clock in the afternoon, within an hour reviving after he was apparently dead, and returning to work this morning showing no ill effects of the shock aside from a slight stiffness of the knees, is the experience of Peter Carney, an employe (sic) of the Fort Dodge Light and Power Company.

Wednesday afternoon Carney approached the brink of death about as close as a human being can go and live to tell of it. He accidentally leaned against a switchboard thru which was passing an electrical current of 1,100 volts strength. With a groan he fell to the floor and lay there to all appearances dead. Fortunately for him there was near a person who knew not exactly “first aid to the injured,” but “first aid to the electrocuted.” Carney was revived and within a short time was able to get on his feet and later to walk about.

The accident occurred at the power house of the Fort Dodge Light and Power company while Carney with a number of other men was engaged in putting in place several pieces of heavy machinery which are part of the improvements the company is making to his plant.

When it is known that persons are often killed by an electrical current of 500 voltage, the same used in operating street cars, the intensity of Carney’s shock can be fully realized. Carney is a man of large physique, weighing over 200 pounds. He had only recently entered the employ of the Light and Power company and it seems was unaware of the dangerous nature of electricity. While assisting in unloading the machinery he was several times cautioned to be careful in passing the switchboard. No one saw him when he received the shock.  The first known of the accident was a groan or scream that issued form his lips as he fell unconscious on the floor.

Superintendent Comstock, who had charge of the work, instantly realized what had hapened (sic) and in a few seconds after Carney had fallen was at work over the prostrate man. The jaws of the latter were tightly closed, but the superintendent in a few minutes succeeded in inducing artifical respiration. When partially revived, Carney was was (sic) assisted to his feet and with Superintendent Comstock as a support was moved about. Later he fully regained consciousness, but it was some time before he was able to understand what had happened.

This morning he returned to work as usual.

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John Haire Sr. Passes On Beyond

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The Fort Dodge Messenger: Nov. 11, 1904

John Haire Sr. Passes On Beyond

Was One of The Best Known of Old Settlers of the County.

Pneumonia Caused His Death

Was Eighty-Six Years of Age When The Summons Came – Funeral Will Occur From Corpus Christi at 11:00 O’clock Saturday Morning.

The going out of the life of Mr. John Haire, Sr., takes from Fort Dodge one of the oldest settlers, successful business men and worthiest citizens.

Death occurred Thursday afternoon between four and five o’clock after a two weeks’ illness with pneumonia.

His death comes after eighty-six years of useful life, in all of which he has been respected and admired. Although he was seriously ill but two weeks he has been slowly failing for several months.

The funeral services will be held from Corpus Christi church Saturday morning at eleven o’clock, when high mass will be said by Rev. Father Lenihan. The pallbearers will be Edward Sherman, C.W. Maher, Dr.  Evans, Owen Conway, Peter REilly, Michael Healy, J.M. Mulroney (and) A.L. Furlong.

born in Ireland in 1818 he spent his boyhood and young manhood there, coming to America when about thirty years of age. Aside form leading a good and noble life, which has been a quiet, simple one in this country, his early years in Ireland are filled with experiences and circumstances which make it doubly interesting.

Coming to America at (indecipherable word) age he made a success in business, raised a large family, held positions of influence and goes form this life, leaving  his wife and children all in comfortable circumstances.

His first residence in America was Cincinnati, Ohio, where he engaged in the dry goods business, staying there until 1855.

His arrival in Fort Dodge the following year brought one of the truest hearts and best of citizens of which Fort Dodge can boast and since that time he has lived here to make all with whom he same (sic) in contact happy; and to live such a life that when his golden anniversary was celebrated in 1901, he was entirely worthy of the tribute which was paid to him and  his wife, Mary M. Carr, whom he married in Cincinnati.

This tribute appeared in the column of the Messenger at the time of his wedding and is so true in every point and we reprint it page eight of this issue of the Messenger.

A Few Expressions.

Below are given a few expressions from the older citizens of Fort Dodge, all of whom have known Mr. John Haire for many years:

Michael Healy: “It has been a source of great pleasure for me to have been acquainted with John Haire for 36 years. My friendship and respect for him always grew, and never diminished. His genial manner, represented to my mind, in the person of John Haire, the perfect type of the Irish gentleman, as well as the enlightened American citizen.”

R.W. Crawford: “When I came to Fort Dodge, in the spring of 1868, John Haire was the leading merchant. I soon made his acquaintance and found in him a good friend. He always bore the same cordial greeting. His personality gave dignity to his presence. Few persons have attained so wide an acquaintance and universal friendship. I rejoiced to see him in the very advanced years of his life, so well, so happy and in the fullest enjoyment of all his endowments.”

R.M. Wright: “Mr. Haire was one of the most kindly and courteous old gentlemen that I ever met. He had that which should accompany old age, love, honor, obedience, troops of friends. To such kindly natures old age is a crown of glory. By reason of the lives of such men the world is made better.”

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The Fort Dodge Messenger: Nov. 16, 1906

Eggs are Skyward

They Retail at 25 Cents, Which is Usual  Top Notch Price for Winter.

Fresh eggs are skyward and what is more grocers are at a loss to supply the trade at all. They are retailing at twenty-five cents a dozen and dealers are buying at twenty-four. The conditions are almost unprecedented and grocers hardly know what to make of them.

“I was up at Ruthven the other day,” said Mr. D.E. Leary, “and thought in a country town like that I could surely be able to pick up a few cases, but I was badly fooled. Eggs are as scarce there as they are here.  Some one got in a car load there a few days ago and they completely sold out in two days. I think it is possible the packers are trying to keep the prices up so that they can unload their storage supply at big prices.”

Thumb Badly Cut

Slight Accident Happens at the Fackler & McMullen Plant.

While at work in the machine department of the Fackler & McMullen plant, as the foot of Central Avenue, this morning, Jno. Sultzbaugh, an employe (sic), sustained a slight injury to his left thumb by a piece of flying metal. He was at work at a lathe at the time when the metal he held in his hand broke, one of the pieces striking the end of the thumb, cutting it severelyi.

Casualties None

Lone Aspirant Passes Initiation and Becomes Full Fledged Elk

One lone candidate for initiation awaited the pleasure of his to be brother Elks in the Elk’s quarters in the Mason building, last evening, and successfully passed through the ovation prepared for him. His name is Clyde Lunger, Kansas City Agent for the Banker’s Life Insurance Company of Des Moines, formerly located here in the interests of that company, and well known in the city.

Still Have Hope

The State Board Has Not Relinquished Idea of Locating Hospital Here

That the state board of control is still considering the probability of locating the state tuberculosis sanitarium here was demonstrated in a telephone convention (sic) held by Judge Robinson with a member of the local committee. In spite of the obstacles which lie in the way, the board is still looking towards Fort Dodge with favor, and will before the next general assembly, decide the site of the state institution in order to make a favorable report on the matter places in its hands.

Closes the Series

Sunday Night Will be Last of Dr. Gwilym’s Sermons.

Rev. D.V. Gwilym, D.D. of New York City, who has been conducting services in the First Methodist church the past two weeks, will close his work here tomorrow night. In view of the fact services will be held this afternoon and evening that as many of his expositions may be given as possible.

The largest audience greeted him last night that has been out yet, and the interest is constantly increasing. Sunday will doubtless be the great day of these meetings. Dr. Gwylym will preach both morning and evening, and every one is cordially invited to attend.

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Dismay Among Teachers

   Posted by: admin    in School days

The Fort Dodge Messenger: Nov. 9, 1906

Dismay Among Teachers

Nearly Half of Those Who Took Recent Exams in Webster County Failed.

Recent returns received by county Superintendent M.P. Somes from the state examining board at Des Moines have caused untold dismay and chagrin among the teachers of Webster county for out of thirty-three who took the examination here under the new law, sixteen failed utterly.

This is a surprise in the extreme. The questions were easy but evidently the state board marked extremely close and the new examination law on this, its first trial, has fallen into marked disfavor in Webster county.

Mr. Somes says that as the result of so many teachers being turned down Webster county will be short of enough to fill the schools by about twenty-eight. The results of the examination came as almost as much of a surprise to Mr. Somes as to the teachers. Many of those who were turned down were old and tried teachers who had good records. Several others who had first and second grade certificates for years got only third grade.

Other counties have been treated about the same and indications are that as the result of the state board’s close marking and strictness the state will have a big shortage on teachers this year.

Mrs. Somes, in order to fill the many vacancies in Webster county schools will hold a special examination in his office November 21, 22 and 23. This will of course, be under the same ruling and all papers will have to be sent to Des Moines for grading.

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Fort Dodge Boy on the Missouri

   Posted by: admin    in Military matters, People

The Fort Dodge Messenger: Nov. 8, 1904

Fort Dodge Boy on the Missouri

Charles Dunsmore, Who is in the Navy Returns to His Duties.

Has Been in Navy Three Years

Has Visited in Many Countries Since He Enlisted – Spent Summer in The Mediteranean (sic) Sea and Will Spend Winter in West Indies.

Charles Dunsmore, the Fort Dodge boy on the battleship Missouri, who has been visiting at his home in this city for the past ten days, left for Boston Saturday night where the ship is located. Dunsmore has been in the navy for three years and likes the life. He was on the Missouri last summer when the awful accident occurred in in (sic) which several of the gunners in one of the thirteen inch turrets were killed.

Since his visit to his home in this city last May, he has been with this ship in every country in southern Europe bordering on the sea. He spent some time in Greece and also visited the cities of Austria, Italy, Spain, Portugal and France. He secured a few days lay off while in each of these countries, and with companions visited interesting cities.

This winter Dunsmore expects the squadron will be located in the West Indies. They have spent each winter there since he joined and he understands that orders to spend this winter there have been given. The Missouri belongs to the battleship squadron of the North Atlantic fleet. In this same squadron is the Kentucky, on which ship Robert Wolverton of this city is an electrician.

Dunsmore is an apprentice and holds as a position, the title of second gunner, on one of the eight inch guns of this ship. He says he is glad he enlisted, and thinks the experience he will get will do him good. He says that although he would not like to take up the navy as a life vocation, he still thinks that five or less years of it will help many.

One sees lots of the world while in the navy. Since Dusnmore joined he  has visited the countries of southern Europe and northern Africa and South America and the West Indies. He thinks that he will be able to get an assignment next summer to a ship that will sail in the waters of northern Europe. In this way he will be able to see Great Britain, Germany, Russia,  northern France, and the Scandinavia (sic) countries.

He said while here that he may try later to get an assignment to a ship on the Pacific squadron. This would enabe (sic) him to see the Philippines, Asia and probably other islands in the south sea. He does not want to do this until he has seen northern Europe, as when one is detailed to the Pacific squadron he is not able to return here until the time  of his enlistment is out. He says that there are many thing (sic) about the life in the navy that are reverse, as is the case in every kind of life.

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Currency Burned in Stove

   Posted by: admin    in People

The Fort Dodge Messenger: Nov. 8, 1905

Currency Burned in Stove

Mrs. Bell of This City Places Money in Stove for Safe Keeping With Bad Results

Alarmed by the burglaries of the city during the last few months, Mrs. L. Bell of Third Avenue south, a few weeks ago placed some eleven or twelve dollars in bills and coin in a stove for safe keeping.

At that time no fire was being kept and she considered the place an ideal one for the safe keeping of the money. A cold day dawned on the city a short time ago and a member of the family knowing nothing of the money in the stove lighted a fire, with the natural result that a few minutes later found the money charred to cinders. The ashes of the bills remained intact, and they were carefully gathered up and taken to the First National bank, from where they were sent to the government.

A short time ago, Mrs. Bell received payment from the government for the destroyed money, but owing to the fact that not all of the charred peices (sic) were gathered up, she was refunded only about half the amount of her loss. The silver was blackened, but not disfigured so as to make it unpassable as the coin of the realm.

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The Mayor is Up in Arms

   Posted by: admin    in Accident, Court matters

The Fort Dodge Messenger: Nov. 7, 1905

The Mayor is Up in Arms

Says Distributing Pills and Medicines About The City Must Stop.

With the bringing before him a case where a little child had become dangerously ill from eating a sample box of pills thrown into the front yard by a distributing agent, Mayor Bennett has risen in his wrath and declares that distributing samples of medicines about the city especially at residences must be stopped.

He states that he will notify official bill poster and advertising agent W.P. Durmer that he must not take any more contracts to put out such stuff and will instruct his police to arrest all transients whom they find pursuing a similar work. His action will no doubt be approved through the city particularly by people with small children, from the fact that the little ones often pick up, and eat boxes of tempting-looking sugar coated pills, etc., that they found about the street and house.

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Seen and Heard

   Posted by: admin    in Merchants

The Fort Dodge Messenger: Nov. 7, 1906

Seen and Heard

A group of men were lounging in one of the drug stores of the city. The proprietor of the establishment was sitting at one of the little round tables used by soda water fiends during the summer months. After writing vigorously unaware of the discussions around him, he suddenly looked up, gathered a sheaf of neatly folded papers in his hand and said, “There’s sixty-seven statements of small accounts for one month which I am sending out. The items total from twenty cents ($4.79 today) to ten dollars ($239.40). Probably the whole amount involved is thirty-five dollars ($838.23).”

Cigars were relit and the loungers settled back in their seats. “Yes,” said the proprietor,  “I have seen men come in here, buy a cigar and have their five cent ($1.20) purchase charged. If the man is a fairly good customer I have my clerks do it. This shows how the charging habit affects people. I should think that a business man would have at least five cents in his pocket. Possibly that man will not charge anything else for that month. At the end of thirty days a statement must be mailed to him. This takes up a large amount of the profits accruing from the sale.

“There is another side of the charging question that I have noticed nad that is that most of the young men who are addicted to it spend far more than they have any idea of and far too heavily in proportion to their wages. Of course this benefits me but still I don’t think it is right. I think that the best way a father can teach a boy frugality and thrift is to warn him against the habit of charging promiscously (sic) every purchase he makes. It is so easy to charge a thing with no thought for the day of reckoning.”



Iowa as Frontier State

   Posted by: admin    in Farm life

The Fort Dodge Messenger: Nov. 7, 1906

Iowa as Frontier State

Pennsylvania Boys Think it a Stamping Ground for Cowboys

Bearing a two cent stamp in one corner, the following enclosure of a letter directed to the Fort Dodge Post Master was received at the post office this morning:

Aspinwall, Pennsylvania
October 23, 1906

Post Master, Fort Dodge, Iowa:

Dear Sir – I would like to ask you to send me the names of some of the ranchers and ranchmen of Iowa that employ cowboys. A friend of mine and I have decided to go west to Iowa providing we can get work as cowboys.

Hoping you will oblige me by sending me a few names, I remain,

Very truly yours,

J.E. Snyder
Aspinwall, Pennsylvania.

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